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4. AS 2159 & 3600 Pile Design Verification

# AS 2159 & 3600 Pile Design Verification

Information presented on this page is intended to demonstrate the section design convergence of AS 2159 & 3600 provisions for pile foundations that can be achieved with SkyCiv. All examples are taken from the following books:

Book 1: Ruwan Rajapakse, Pile Design and Construction Rules of Thumb, 2016.

Book 2: Lonnie Pack, Australian Guidebook for Structural Engineers, 2018.

Discrepancies between the manual calculation and SkyCiv results are expected due to the recent changes in AS 3600. Lonnie Packs follows the previous version of the standard (AS 3600-2009), as SkyCiv implements the most recent release (AS 3600-2018).

### Vertical Geotechnical Capacity

Example 7.4.1 (Book 1): Compute the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile:

Details
Section
Diameter 500 mm
Length 10 m
Soil Properties
Unit Weight 17.3 kN/m3
Friction Angle 30 Degrees
Cohesion 0 KPa
Groundwater Table Not present

Results
Parameter Manual SkyCiv
Vertical Effective Pressure 173 kPa 173 kPa
Base Resistance term 713.3 kN 713.338 kN
Average Effective Vertical Stress 86.5 kPa 86.500 kPa
Shaft Frictional Resistance Term 703.5 kN 703.510 kN
Ultimate Bearing Capacity 1,416.8 kN 1,416.848 kN

Example 7.4.2 (Book 1): Compute the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile:

Details
Section
Diameter 500 mm
Length 10 m
Soil Properties
Unit Weight 17.3 kN/m3
Friction Angle 30 Degrees
Cohesion 0 KPa
Groundwater Table 3 m

Results
Parameter Manual SkyCiv
Vertical Effective Pressure 104.33 kPa 104.330 kPa
Base Resistance term 430.19 kN 430.188 kN
Average Effective Vertical Stress
0-3m 25.95 kPa 25.950 kPa
3-10m 78.12 kPa 78.115 kPa
Shaft Frictional Resistance Term
0-3m 63.32 kN 63.316 kN
3-10m 444.72 kN 444.720 kN
Total Shaft Frictional Resistance Term 508.04 kN 508.036 kN
Ultimate Bearing Capacity 938.22 kN 938.224 kN

Example 7.4.3 (Book 1): Compute the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile:

Details
Section
Diameter 500 mm
Length 12 m
Layer 1-Soil Properties
Thickness 5 m
Unit Weight 17.3 kN/m3
Friction Angle 30 Degrees
Cohesion 0 KPa
Groundwater Table Not present
Layer 2-Soil Properties
Thickness 7 m
Unit Weight 16.9 kN/m3
Friction Angle 32 Degrees
Cohesion 0 KPa
Groundwater Table Not present

Results
Parameter Manual SkyCiv
Vertical Effective Pressure 204.8 kPa 204.800 kPa
Base Resistance term 1,166.2 kN 1,166.159 kN
Average Effective Vertical Stress
Layer 1 43.3 kPa 43.250 kPa
Layer 2 145.7 kPa 145.650 kPa
Shaft Frictional Resistance Term
Layer 1 176.1 kN 175.878 kN
Layer 2 891.6 kN 891.295 kN
Ultimate Bearing Capacity 2,233.9 kN 2,233.332 kN

Example 7.4.4 (Book 1): Compute the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile:

Details
Section
Diameter 500 mm
Length 15 m
Layer 1-Soil Properties
Thickness 5 m
Unit Weight 17.3 kN/m3
Friction Angle 30 Degrees
Cohesion 0 KPa
Groundwater Table 3 m
Layer 2-Soil Properties
Thickness 7 m
Unit Weight 16.9 kN/m3
Friction Angle 32 Degrees
Cohesion 0 KPa

Results
Parameter Manual SkyCiv
Vertical Effective Pressure 137.9 kPa 137.780 kPa
Base Resistance term 785.2 kN 784.538 kN
Average Effective Vertical Stress
0-3m 26 kPa 25.950 kPa
3-5m 59.4 kPa 59.390 kPa
5-15m 102.4 kPa 102.330 kPa
Shaft Frictional Resistance Term
0-3m 63.4 kN 63.316 kN
3-5m 96.6 kN 96.605 kN
5-15m 895.2 kN 894.573 kN
Ultimate Bearing Capacity 1,840.4 kN 1,839.032 kN

### Axial & Flexural Capacities

Example 4.6 (Book 2): Determine the compressive and bending capacity of the following section:

Details
Section
Depth 600 mm
Width 400 mm
Reinforcement
Top Bars 4-N20 Bars
Middle Bars 2-N20 Bars
Bottom Bars 4-N20 Bars
Shear Bars R10-200
Materials
Concrete Strength 40 MPa
Rebar Strength 500 MPa

Results
Parameter Manual (AS 3600 2009) SkyCiv (AS 3600 2018)
Plastic Centroid (dq) 300 mm 300 mm
α 1 0.85 0.85
α 2 0.85 0.790
γ 0.77 0.870
Squash Load Point (ΦNuo) 5,774 kN 5,774.389 kN
Compression Block Area (Ac) 89,040 mm2 99,597.600 mm2
Concrete Compressive Force (Fcc) 3,027 kN 3,147.284 kN
Top Bar Strain (εs(top)) 0.0023 0.00227
Middle Bar Strain (εs(mid)) -0.0001 -0.00014
Bottom Bar Strain (εs(bot)) -0.0025 -0.00256
Ultimate Axial Capacity (Nu) 2,913.5 kN 3,030.648 kN
Design Axial Capacity (ϕNu) 1,748 kN 1,818.389 kN
Ultimate Bending Capacity (Mu) 837.4 kN-m 818.739 kN-m
Design Bending Capacity (ϕMu) 502 kN-m 491.243 kN-m

Example 5.2 (Book 2): Calculate the horizontal geotechnical capacity of free-headed pile found on a stiff-over consolidated clay with the following pile and soil parameters:

Details
Pile Data
Pile Length 3.5 meters
Pile Diameter 0.6 meters
Soil Properties
Unit Weight 16 kN/m3
Friction Angle 45 Degrees
Cohesion 2 KPa
Geotechnical Reduction Factor 0.45
Material
Concrete Strength 40 MPa
Concrete Modulus 32,800 MPa
Concrete Placement Factor 1

Results
Parameter Manual SkyCiv
Stiffness Factor (R) 1,845 mm 1,845.203 mm
Critical Length 3,690 mm 3,690.405 mm
Equivalent Eccentricity 725 mm 725 mm
Passive Soil Pressure (At depth: 3.5m) 843.9 kPa 843.943 kPa
Passive Force (At depth: 3.5m) 354.4 kN 354.456 kN
Moment about V*applied (At depth: 3.5m) 1,373.5 kN-m 1,373.517 kN-m
Moment about the Rotation Point (At depth: 3.5m) 124.1 kN-m 124.060 kN-m
Unfactored Horizontal Capacity 184 kN-m 184.077 kN
Factored Horizontal Capacity 82.8 kN-m 82.835 kN