Using the SkyCiv Load Generator in EN 1991-1-4 Wind Load Calculations for Signboards
To calculate the wind load pressures for a structure using SkyCiv Load Generator, the process is to define first the code reference. From there, the workflow is to define the parameters in Project Tab, Site Tab, and Building Tab, respectively.However, only paid users can use this wind load calculation. With a Professional Account or by purchasing the standalone Load Generator module, you can use all the features of this calculation as long as you want You can purchase the standalone module thru this link.
The supported countries for EN 1991-1-4 calculation in this module are as follows:
- Czech Republic
- France and French territories
- The Netherlands
- San Marino
- United Kingdom
Figure 1. SkyCiv Load Generator UI.
Users can get the wind speed by location any time from the SkyCiv free wind speed map database. Using EN 1991-1-4, you just need to put the address of the structure located in any of the supported countries. The necessary parameters will show according to National Annex governing the structure location. In order to explain it further, we will use London, UK as the arbitrary address. You can also override the basic wind speed to get a more appropriate design wind pressure.
Figure 2. Site data of SkyCiv Load Generator.
SkyCiv has digitalized the map as per the paperback standard. This means, you can simply enter in the site location and the software will automatically pull the wind speeds based on this input. The software will use our internal interpolator to calculate values between the contours, to ensure accurate wind speeds are used in your designs.
Site Input Parameters for Wind Load Calculation
Project Address – Used for getting the nearest wind speed based on the wind region and country
Basic Wind Speed – the fundamental basic wind speed to be used in calculating the design wind pressure. This is automatically determined based on Project Address and can be modified by the user
Site Elevation – if required by the National Annex, used in calculating the altitude factor calt
Once the parameters above are completed, we can now proceed to the Structure Data section.
The structure data and the wind and snow parameters are separated into different sections. You need to defi ne first the Structure you are analyzing. Right now, the available structures for EN 1991 are as follows:
- Building – supports the following roof profile:
- Duopitch, Hip, Monopitch
- Open Duopitch, Open Monoslope
In this documentation, we will focus on signboard structure.
Structure Input Parameters for Wind Load Calculation
Ground to Top of Signboard – Used in calculation of velocity pressure
Signboard Horizontal Dimension – Used in calculation of pressure coefficients
Signboard Vertical Dimension – Used in calculation of pressure coefficients
Pole Diameter – Used in calculation of pressure coefficients
Pole Surface Type – Used in calculation of pressure coefficients
Once the parameters above are completed, we can now proceed to the Wind Load Parameters section.
To proceed with our wind load calculation, we need to check the checkbox first beside the Wind Load button. By default, this is checked when the site wind data has been defined.
Figure 4. Checkbox for Wind Load Data.
The next step, is to define the Wind Source Direction. This parameter is used in obtaining the upwind (left side) and downwind (right side) ground elevations to calculate for Orography Factor, co and Direction Factor, cdir represented by a 30-degree sector.
Topography Input Parameters
Wind Source Direction – used in obtaining the upwind (left side) and downwind (right side) ground elevations to calculate for Orography Factor, co and Direction Factor, cdir
Terrain Category – Used in calculation of Roughness Factor cr. Assumed to be homogeneous for each wind source direction
Season/Month – Used in determining the Season Factor . Required for Belgium, Ireland, and United Kingdom
Type of Terrain – Options to select Flat, Hill, Escarpment, Ridge
H – Height of obstruction/terrain. For type of terrain is set to option other than Flat terrain, this is used in calculating the Orography Factor, co
Lu – Horizontal distance from upwind base of the obstruction to its peak. For type of terrain is set to option other than Flat terrain, this is used in calculating the Orography Factor, co
Ld – Horizontal distance from peak of the obstruction to the downwind base. For type of terrain is set to option other than Flat terrain, this is used in calculating the Orography Factor, co
x – Horizontal distance of structure to the peak of the obstruction with the peak as the point of reference. For type of terrain is set to option other than Flat terrain, this is used in calculating the Orography Factor, co
Distance upwind to Shoreline – (for BS/IS EN 1991-1-4) used in calculating the Roughness Factor cr
Distance inside Town terrain – (for BS/IS EN 1991-1-4) used in calculating the Roughness Factor cr
Displacement Height – (for BS/IS EN 1991-1-4) used in calculating the Roughness Factor cr
Figure 5. Elevation Data from Google Maps for upwind (left) and downwind side (right).
Wind Input Parameters
Type of Structure – Required to be set to EN 1991 Signboards
After this, the next step is to click the Calculate Loads Loads on the upper right side of the UI.
Once all the parameters are defined, clicking the Calculate Loads button will give a result as shown below:
Figure 6. Wind results for Building
The summarized results are shown on the right side of the screen. Other results are shown on the detailed report that can be used to countercheck the calculated pressures.
The detailed wind load calculations can be accessed only by Professional account users and those who purchased the standalone load generator module. All the parameters and assumptions used in the calculation are displayed on the report to make it transparent to the user. You can download a sample detailed calculation thru the following links:
For additional resources, you can use these links for reference: