SkyCivドキュメント

SkyCivソフトウェアのガイド - チュートリアル, ハウツーガイドと技術記事

TechNotes

  1. ホーム
  2. TechNotes
  3. 構造3D
  4. SkyCivを使用したモーメントフレームの設計 (AISC 360-10)

SkyCivを使用したモーメントフレームの設計 (AISC 360-10)

How to model, analyse and design a Steel Moment Frame using SkyCiv

This tutorial is a simple guide of the moment frame design process using the integrated SkyCiv modules: 構造3D, メンバーデザイン, and Connection Design.

Moment frames are combinations of columns and beams connected with partially or fully restrained connections. These connections experience moment forces and cannot be considered simply supported conditions. They are used in similarity to shear walls and braced frames; they resist lateral forces in conjuncture with vertical forces. 固定された性質のため, フレーム メンバー’ 剛性は、フレームの横方向の剛性の主な原因です. ブレース付きフレームは通常、必要な材料に基づいて安価なオプションです, but moment frames gives architects and designers more space between columns and therefore give a better aesthetic. 次の記事は次の内容で構成されています:

SkyCiv構造3D (S3D): Modeling and Analyzing our Moment Frame

モデリング

For modeling, we will be using SkyCiv構造3D 分析ソフトウェア (get started for free at SkyCiv’s homepage). But before we get into modeling, make sure to confirm what units you are working in. This can be done by going to 設定 on the top right of the toolbar. この例では, we will be operating with Imperial units. We will assume our single bay moment frame has a centroid beam height of 18 feet and a 30 foot span. また, we will assume our moment frame is made up entirely of W-shapes from the AISC database and are fabricated from ASTM A992 Gr. 50 鋼. 最後に, the trial column and beam size of W12x40 そして W18x65 使用されます, それぞれ,

To start the workflow, lets input the nodes of our moment frame. 右から左に、選択ボックス内に完全に含まれている要素のみが選択されます ノード on the input tab (left hand side of the screen). The nodes of our frame will be (バツ,そして): (0,0), (30,0), (0,18), そして (30,18).

Now lets generate the two columns and beam that make up our frame. これをする, there are two options: 1) に行く 会員 in the input tab and type in the end nodes for each of our members or 2) draw the members in using the ペンツール located on the right vertical toolbar in the model space. 瞬間フレームで作業しているため, the end releases of each member at each connection location needs to be fully fixed, denoted as “FFFFFF” and highlighted as “フレーム” when creating members within the 会員 タブ. これまでの瞬間フレームを見てみましょう:

1

知らせ, “Sec1is the section applied to our current members and isNot Definedbecause we have not applied a section yet. Before we assign sections to the members, lets import the correct steel material into our model. 右から左に、選択ボックス内に完全に含まれている要素のみが選択されます 材料 – データベース in the input tab. Follow the drop downs for each relative field until we have found the correct material and see this:
2Click submit to import the material. After importing the wanted material, lets assign our member sizes. 右から左に、選択ボックス内に完全に含まれている要素のみが選択されます セクション on the input tab and click on Builder. 今, are operating within the SkyCivセクションビルダー モジュール, directly integrated with our current project in S3D. While in Section Builder, lets import the two W-shapes by going to the データベース portion of the section builder and selecting each shape. Before clicking 繰り返し間の距離, make sure that the material on the right hand side is set to the desired material that we want associated with both members: ASTM A992 Steel.

5

After bringing the two sections into the model, assign them to each member using the セクションID field on the input tab while each member is selected. For a more in-depth look at SkyCivセクションビルダー and its capabilities, check out its Software Documentation.

The last thing we need to do is apply a support condition. Unlike gravity columns or columns part of a braced frame, our column supports need to be fully fixed and therefore will experience moment at the base. サポートを追加するには, NS + 両方のノードをクリックします, 右クリックしてから左クリック サポートを追加. 入力タブに移動します – すでにノードが選択されています – 固定支持条件を選択. これは、に行くことによっても行うことができます サポート in the input tab and applying the supports to each node.

Our stick model should now show two different members for the columns and beam in addition to our supports:

3

For our moment frame, we also need to make sure that the orientation of our columns is correct and favorable for lateral action. Because the moment frames will be experiencing lateral forces, the strong axis of the column is almost always perpendicular to the load direction. この場合, our lateral force will be in the X-direction, so the column flanges should be perpendicular to the X direction. A good way to verify the orientation of your members is by entering the 3D rendering. これをする, go to the right toolbar in the model space and click on the shape that looks like a 3D cube, will bring you into the 3D render of your model. Take a look at our moment frame in 3D:

6

You can see that our columns are orientated the correct direction. With a more complicated 3D structure you can rotate the orientation of any member by selecting the member, clicking on 高度な, and then inputting the intended rotation in degrees into the 回転角 分野.

Before you load your structure, double check that you have the correct supports, セクション, and materials for each section.

負荷と負荷の組み合わせ

知らせ, in previous figures that our self-weight was turned off, lets turn this on now. Click on the “SW: OFF” モデル空間で自重入力タブを出してONにする. SkyCiv は、分析計算を行う際に各メンバーの自重を考慮に入れるようになりました.

実用的な目的のために, モーメント フレームが、梁の間隔が 2 である建物にあると仮定します 8 フィート. したがって, ワンウェイロード用, 私たちの支流の幅は 8 フィート. 重ね積み用, 私たちの瞬間フレームが次の非因数負荷を受けると仮定しましょう:

\(側面:Wind\:Load=8\:キップ:@\:top\:elevation\)

\(Dead\:Load=40\:psf)

\(40\:psf*8\:ft=320\:lb/ft=0.320\:k/ft\)

\(住む:Load=100\:psf)

\(100\:psf*8\:ft=800\:lb/ft=0.800\:k/ft\)

モーメントフレームが対称であるため, 1つの風向だけを見ていきます. フレームがさまざまな方向にさまざまな大きさの風荷重を見る場合, その風荷重ケースも追加する必要があります.

風による横方向の点荷重から始めましょう. 右から左に、選択ボックス内に完全に含まれている要素のみが選択されます 点荷重 in the input tab on the left. 適用します 8 ノードへのkipロード 3 in the X-direction. その後, we are going to add a corresponding load group by typing in “風荷重” に 負荷グループ field and hitting Accept. Our wind load should now look like this:

6.5

次, lets apply our superimposed dead and live loads as uniform distributed loads. 右から左に、選択ボックス内に完全に含まれている要素のみが選択されます 分布荷重 and type in the member ID (メンバー 2) for our beam. その後, の中に Y-Magを開始します そして Y-Magを終了します, input the magnitude of 0.320 k/ft for the dead load. 風荷重と同様, タイプ “デッドロード” の中に 負荷グループ field to generate a corresponding load group. ライブ ロードに対してこのプロセスを繰り返します。. デッド ロードとライブ ロードの両方が適用されたモデルの外観を次に示します。:

7

解析前の最後の主要なステップは、荷重の組み合わせを生成することです. SkyCiv gives users the ability to import load combinations directly from codes from countries around the world. Because we are working with Imperial units and AISC shapes, ASCE から荷重の組み合わせをインポートします。 7-10. まず最初に, we need to assign our load groups to load cases. Go to the upper toolbar and click 編集する – 荷重ケースの割り当て. 各荷重グループを正しい荷重ケースに割り当てます. この例では, それは単に死荷重を死荷重に合わせているだけです, 等. 割り当ては次のようになります。:

8

Notice that you need to assign a load case to the self-weight (SW1) 同様に. To generate load combinations go to コンボをロードする in the input tab and click on デザインコード. We will be using LRFD design in this case. Display the load combinations and you should see this:

9

If you forgot to assign load cases before the import, you can do that here as well. Our load combination generator will pull any ASCE 7-10 load combinations that include at least one of any of the load cases your project. 私たちの場合には, we do not have seismic loads, so we will uncheck ULS: 5 and ULS: 6. We also do not have any Roof Live or Snow loads, and we know that the 1.2D + 1.6L load combination will govern for vertical forces, so we will uncheck ULS 3. Once we have the desired load combinations checked, クリック インポート to import them into our project.

Now that we have generated our nodes, 会員, サポート, 負荷, 荷重ケース, and load combinations, we can commence our analysis. For any information about any of these steps or about using S3D, 私たちをチェックしてください ソフトウェアのドキュメント.

分析, 結果, and Post-processing

It is good practice to go to 編集する – 修理モデル to repair any inconsistencies or merge nodes in your model before beginning the analysis of your structure. また, make sure your project is stable by checking end releases and support conditions throughout. 最後に, に行く 設定 – ソルバー to look at and edit any pertinent analysis settings, such as convergence tolerance during P-delta analysis or the number of evaluation points per member.

Because we did not include any dynamic loading into this example, there are three solution methods that we can use:

  1. 線形静的
  2. 線形静的 + 座屈
  3. 非線形静的 + Pデルタ

To learn more about each analysis type in SkyCiv Structural 3D, ここをクリック.

At a minimum it is suggested to run the Linear Static + Buckling analysis to see if any members in your structure are subject to buckling. We will use Non-Linear Static + P-delta analysis due to the second-order effects caused by the lateral wind load. Find the analysis options on the drop-down after hovering on 解決する, located on the upper toolbar. After generating the results, we found that there is no concern for buckling of our frame, thanks to the buckling analysis prompt:

10

On the left side of the results page you can see the different types of forces and results that can be shown. Any individual load combination can be evaluated, as well as any individual load case or group. For design purposes, we will be using the 封筒絶対最大 because it will show us the worst forces that each member experiences. 注意, the envelope is not showing the worst load combination, but the worst combination of all of the load combinations at once. This loading condition is not realistic, but itenvelopesall of the possible forces that each member できる 見る. See the figures below for the pertinent force and deflection diagrams for our moment frame:

11

Reaction Envelope Absolute Max12

Shear Envelope Absolute Max13

Moment Envelope Absolute Max14

Axial Envelope Absolute Max15

Deflection Envelope Absolute Max

While there are no direct code requirements for story drift not due to seismic loading, it is recommended to keep story drift of structures between 1/500 そして 1/200 the story height (エリングウッド). For this frame, the story height is 18 フィート, so our drift should be between (18 ft/500) そして (18 ft/5\200), or between 0.43 そして 1.0 インチ. Our envelope max drift is shown as 0.55 インチ, これは実際には H/500 の下限に近い, which satisfies our engineering judgement.

ボタン, 結果概要, メンバーのストレス限界をすばやく確認するために、大多数のユーザーが使用しています, 特に鋼の場合. このウィンドウには、応力容量に最も近い部材のスナップショットが表示されます. Users can customize stress and deflection limits for their project using the toolbar on right side of the modeling space. Here is a glimpse of our frame using the 結果概要: 16Deflection/Span そして Member Stress are the customizable fields. 最後に, don’t forget that Structural 3D gives its users the ability to print reports with almost unlimited functionality and customization.

One of the biggest advantages of using the SkyCiv suite is that although all of the modules can used as standalone, most of them are integrated directly and are better suited to be used directly from Structural 3D. こちらです, all of the analytical results we have just calculated can be pulled directly into adjunct modules for design of members and connections.

SkyCivメンバーデザイン: Checking and Selecting a Design our Members

The majority of the work done throughout SkyCiv is the modeling, 読み込み中, and analysis phases of a 3D model. SkyCiv Member Design follows a similar style in that it majors in user-friendliness and simplicity. It’s ease of use and integration with S3D gives users the ability to seamlessly switch between the model and the design module. We recommend that users spend some time going through each design module to see this themselves. 今, lets take a look at the design of the members in our frame; we will be using AISC 360-10 LRFD for our design code.

When opening the Member Design module, your projects job details will be brought in where you can change and confirm them. The next input tab lets you customize the phi-factors for steel. We will keep the defaults as laid out by AISC. の 会員 input tab is a good place to stop and look at your list of design-able members. Because of SkyCiv’s integrated ecosystem, it will import all of the steel members in your 3D model and calculate unbraced lengths, 有効長さ係数, and slenderness ratios for them. また、モデルに存在する材料とさまざまなセクションもリストします. フォース gives you the option to design for any single load combination, but is defaulted to the envelope forces of your structure. You can view the absolute worst case forces for your structure for any load combination as well.

入力オプションを確認したので、, させて 実行設計, この出力が表示されるはずです:

17

This window is the main results page that will show you the unity, or capacity ratios, of each design check. Don’t forget to hover over the tooltips (“私” within a circle) if you are not exactly sure which each variable stands for. You can see that the Combined Forces limit state is governing for all three members.

Design Summary Report is similar to the 結果概要 そして 報告する for the analysis phase, it gives a succinct look at the forces that the members are experiencing and whether or not capacity has been reached.

One of the most exclusive functions to SkyCiv design modules is the individual member design reports that are available by clicking one of the report icons under the Report column for every member; this can be printed to a PDF or HTML. These reports give much more detailed hand calculations of the checks that are being done for the member. 例えば, lets take a look at a few snippets of our beam (メンバー 2):

The start of the axial strength check

18

The start of the flexural strength check

18.5

Our governing limit states check:

19

If you look in the modeling window, you will see that the frame shows the design ratios of each member as well as color coded. Because all three of the membersPassed”, here is what our current frame looks like:

20

注意: 限界状態の設計比率をモデル空間に表示できます. It will default to the governing case for each member to give users the best possible picture of what members may need revising.

メンバーデザインモジュールの詳細については、モジュールがサポートするコードバージョンを参照してください, see our ソフトウェアのドキュメント.

次は何ですか?

SkyCiv is always updating and adding features to our platform, with software updates almost every 2 数週間! 他のほとんどの構造工学ソフトウェアは、年に1回だけ更新されます。. この記事の時点で現在開発中の主要な設計更新には、次のものがあります。:

  • オプティマイザ: integrated tool with Structural 3D that will optimize member designs for users automatically, 設定またはカスタマイズ可能な基準に基づく.
  • Apply loads quickly and easily from wind/snow load modules
  • More design codes and modules
  • Need some other features? Request them today at [email protected]

SkyCiv接続設計: Designing a Moment Connection

Now lets look at designing the two beam-column connections for our frame. They will both be designed as moment connections due to the presence of moment at the connection location. Make sure that the 封筒絶対最大 is shown in the analysis portion of the workflow because the connection module will bring the forces that are shown at the time you enter the module. メンバーデザインに似ている, to enter the Connection module, クリックしてください 設計 button and Change Module in the drop-down menu. Add a connection by pressing Add Connection Assembly. Toggle to モーメント接続 and find the Welded Flanges moment connection type. 接続選択ウィンドウは次のようになります。:

21

With the connection type chosen, 接続の親メンバーと子メンバーを識別する必要があります. 設計を簡素化するために、両方の梁の端に同じ接続を使用します。. If we look back on our analysis, 右側の接続では、モーメントの大きさが大きくなっていることがわかります, so we will design for this connection. この場合, 右側の列が親メンバーになります (メンバー 1), ビームは子メンバーになります (メンバー 2). Once this has been edited in the correct input area, the model space will identify the connection and should look like this:

22

This gives the user a visual representation and confirmation of the specific connection location(s) they are designing for their structure. To enter the design, click on the pencil image on the input tab. 注意, the connection can and will be rendered in 3D for you to look at while the inputs are being changed. Each time there is a change to the connection, クリックしてください レンダリングする button to refresh the rendered image. フォース can be customized, but thanks to the connection module’s integration with S3D, それらは自動的に入力されます. 前述のとおり, the forces listed will be taken from whatever load combination/envelope was being viewed in the analysis portion of S3D.

繋がり input tab is where the majority of editing is done. 親会員 そして 子会員 1 should be accurate because the information is pulled directly from the member information inputted in S3D. Always make sure to check the pertinent design values in these areas. Go through each tab and put in the desired angle dimensions and bolt edge distances, as well as weld size. We are going to use an A36 PL1/4x4x0′-9″ と (3)-3/4″ Group A bolts. For a fillet weld size, we will start with 1/4″. Put all the required information into the relevant fields, then hit render. The 3D connection image should change and update to the most current information. Here is our example:

23

Click on 実行設計. Results for each portion of the connection should be shown on the left. Similar to the Member Design module, limit states are color coded to tell the user if their connection design is under or over capacity. Fortunately for us, the connection that we manufactured has passed each design check and will work for our frame!

Following the theme of transparency and accuracy, SkyCiv Connection has the power to print full hand calculations for each steel connection in accordance with AISC 360-10 Chapter J. The limit states that are shown in the hand calculations are summarized in the results after each design is ran. For continuity, take a look at a couple of snippets from this connections report:

Welded Flanges Tensile Yielding (AISC Sec. J4)

24

デッドロードからの反応 (AISC Sec. J4):

25

最後に, when operating with the Connection module, notice that you can export the connection in a drawing format, or directly to AutoCAD. Considering the amount of time spent drafting details from scratch, this export feature has saved not only structural engineer’s time, but structural designer’s as well.

For more information about the connection module or moment connections in general, see our ソフトウェアのドキュメント.

次は何ですか?

SkyCiv is always updating and adding features to our platform, with software updates almost every 2 数週間! 他のほとんどの構造工学ソフトウェアは、年に1回だけ更新されます。. この記事の時点で現在開発中の主要な設計更新には、次のものがあります。:

  • Baseplate and Anchor Design: analyze and design baseplates and anchors at the base of columns in S3D
  • More design codes (ユーロコードは近日公開予定)
  • UI Improvements to simplify and speed up user workflow
  • 基礎デザイン: design isolated and combined footings and piles for columns, directly integrated with your 3D model in Structural 3D

最終的な考え

We were able to go through the design of a simple 2D moment frame from conception, 接続設計から詳細まで. Throughout this process we never had to leave the program or load multiple modules separately. 各モジュールは、利用可能な他の構造工学ソフトウェアとは異なり、互いにシームレスにつながります. その間ずっと, あなたは任意のブラウザを介して操作しています, 任意のデバイスで, すべてのファイルがクラウドに保存されている. SkyCivスイートで可能な限り機能を拡張!

参考文献

  1. 構造用鋼製建物の仕様. American Institute of Steel Construction, 2010.
  2. エリングウッド, ブルース. “Serviceability Guidelines for Steel Structures.” www.aisc.org, 1989, www.aisc.org/globalassets/aisc/awards/tr-higgins/past-winners/serviceability-guidelines-for-steel-structures.pdf.
この記事は役に立ちましたか?
はい 番号

どのように我々は助けることができます?

トップへ戻る