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4. Análise de espectro de resposta: Pratos

# Análise de espectro de resposta: Pratos

## Descrição geral

SkyCiv has included a new powerful feature consisting of the plate response spectrum analysis in the platform. Neste artigo, we will cover an example of a small building, as the following image shows. The primary purpose is to explain some essential details when executing a similar analysis by yourself. Figura 1. Exemplo de Edifício Pequeno

You can see that the small reinforced concrete structure has walls and slabs built using the SkyCiv plate element. When designing the building for dynamic loads such as earthquakes, most construction codes establish some methods such as the ‘Response Spectrum Procedure or Analysis (RSA).’

The RSA consists of taking the seismic design level acceleration through a smooth curve given by the code. You can read these SkyCiv articles: Análise de espectro de resposta: A Building Example and Response Spectrum Analysis: Modal Combination Methods for more information and examples Análise de espectro de resposta: Building Examples e Análise de espectro de resposta: Métodos de Combinação Modal.

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## Finite Element Model: Plates Dynamic Analysis

Once the geometry and materials for the example have been defined, the next crucial step is to run a linear analysis of a meshed structure. Please take a look at the model in Figure 2. Figura 2. Edifício pequeno em malha

The motion equation to solve when running a response spectrum analysis has the shape of:

$${M_e}{\ponto{X_e}}+{C_e}{\dot{X_e}}+{K_e}{X_e}={-\ponto{X_0}{(t)}{M_e}{J}}$$

Onde:

• $${M_e}$$ is the consistent matrix for masses.
• $${C_e}$$ is the damping matrix (Muitas vezes, this value could be calculated as the linear combination of stiffness and masses matrices $${C_e}={\alfa}{K_e}+{\beta}{M}$$ ).
• $${K_e}$$ is the stiffness matrix.
• $${X_e}$$ is the displacement vector relative to the structure’s base.
• $${X_0}{(t)}$$ is the soil displacement vector (It has all degrees of freedom: 3 displacements and three rotations).
• $${J}$$ is a vector with unitary components.

Due SkyCiv using the Finite Element Method for Plates, the matrix $${M_e}$$ could be obtained through the following expression for Kinetic Energy:

$${E_c}={\fratura{1}{2}}{\int_{vol} {\rho}{\dot{x}^ 2}{dw}Vol}$$ .

We now write the $$x$$ displacement as a function of its nodes and use some interpolation expressions ($$N_{x}^{T}$$).

$${x}=N_{x}^{T} {x}$$. If we plug this value into the energy equation, s/h:

$${E_c}={\fratura{1}{2}}{\dot{x}^{T}}\{{\int_{vol}{\rho}{N}{N^T}{d}{Vol}}\} \dot{x}$$

Então, we can say that:

$$M = {\int_{vol}{\rho}{N}{N^T}{d}{Vol}}$$

Defining the above matrix lets us run a modal analysis, which is required for the dynamic analysis. Figura 3 helps us with some recommended inputs. Increasing the total number of modes is recommended until strictly fulfilling codes. This will affect the total mass participation factors, which have to reach a value of 90%.

## Aplicando Cargas Sísmicas

The next step is to define the spectral loads. We can include a custom function or take the cases previously built by the SkyCiv platform. This example uses for each building plan main direction an ASCE plot. Check the inputs in Figure 4 e figura 5. Figura 4. Configurações para RSA, part one Figura 5. Configurações para RSA, part two

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## Results analysis and conclusions Figura 6. Modes and Mass Participation Summary, part one Figura 7. Modes and Mass Participation Summary, part one

Figuras 6 e 7 give the modes and mass participation values. These tables define the principal modes in each plan direction corresponding to those with the highest mass participation values.

Modo 24, T = 0.029 segundos, participação em massa = 44.80 % ‘x direction’: Figura 8. Main modal mode for X direction.

Modo 23, T = 0.030 segundos, participação em massa = 41.80 % ‘z direction’: Figura 9. Main modal mode for Z direction.

SkyCiv also gives the displacements, forças, estresses, and so on when running the RSA. The following images help us to understand how the buildings behave. Figura 10. Displacements in X direction for RSA load case. Figura 11. Displacement in the Z direction for RSA load case.

You can now design the plate elements with those results. We suggest you read the SkyCiv articles about Plate Design: Módulo de Design de Placa and applied code-based slabs examples in the following links: ACI, AS-3600 e Eurocódigo 2.

Além disso, with SkyCiv, we can get the base reactions for the foundation design. Figura 12. Base reactions for RSA load case.

Just be aware of the results signs! All of them came in positive or absolute values. This is because we get the maximum absolute values for each design component when using an RSA method.

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