 SkyCiv文档

1. SkyCiv RC设计
2. 板材设计模块
3. 欧洲规范板设计示例和与 SkyCiv 的比较

# 欧洲规范板设计示例和与 SkyCiv 的比较

## 一般说明

This article discusses two reinforced concrete slab design examples, including one-way and two-way bending. The main goal is to compare the results obtained between hand calculations and SkyCiv Plate Design Module. We will use Eurocode 2 用于钢筋混凝土结构.

## One-Way Slab Design Example

The first case to analyse is a small one-floor building (数字 1, 数字 2) which has a slab behaviour described as in one-direction.  For the slab example, in summary, the material, elements properties, and loads to consider :

• Slab type classification: Oneway behaviour $$\压裂{L_2}{L_1} > 2 ; \压裂{14米}{6米}=2.33 > 2.00$$ 好的!
• Building occupation: Residential use
• Slab thickness $$t_{平板}=0.25m$$
• Reinforced concrete density $$\rho_w = 25 \压裂{千牛}{m^3}$$
• Concrete characteristic compressive strength at 28 天 (C25\30) $$fck = 25 兆帕$$
• Slab Self-Weight $$Dead = \rho_w \times t_{平板} = 25 \压裂{千牛}{m^3} \times 0.25m = 6.25 \压裂 {千牛}{m^2}$$
• Super-imposed dead load $$SD = 3.0 \压裂 {千牛}{m^2}$$
• 活荷载 $$L = 2.0 \压裂 {千牛}{m^2}$$

### Hand calculations according to EN-2

• Dead load, $$g = (3.0 + 6.25) \压裂{千牛}{m^2} \次 1 m = 9.25 \压裂{千牛}{米}$$
• 活荷载, $$q = (2.0) \压裂{千牛}{m^2} \次 1 m = 2.0 \压裂{千牛}{米}$$
• Ultimate load, $$Fd = 1.35\times g + 1.5\times q = (1.35\次 9.25 + 1.5\次 2.0)\压裂{千牛}{米} =15.5 \frac{千牛}{米}$$

Before obtaining the steel reinforcement area, we have to check the span-effective depth ratios. Two main cases:

Structural System Basic span-effective depth ratio
Factor for structural sistem K Concrete highly stressed %($$\rho = 1.5 )$$ Concrete lightly stressed %($$\rho = 0.5 )$$
1. End span of continuous beam or one-way continuous slab or two-way slab continuous over one long side 1.3 18 26
2. Interior span of continuous beam or one-way or two-way spanning slab 1.5 20 30

The most critical case is for number one, so, we select a ratio of 26.

• $$t_{分}= 分数{大号}{我知道}+cover+0.5\dot bar_{直径}= 分数{6米}{26}+0.025m+0.5\times 12mm=0.26m$$ ~ $$0.25m$$. The overall thickness is still adequate, 好的!

End support condition At first interior support At middle of interior spans At interior supports

Outer support Near middle of end span End support End span

0.04FL 0.086FL 0.063FL

0.46F 0.6F 0.5F

• L is the effective span
• F is the total ultimate load in the span (1.35Gk + 1.5Qk; Gk is the dead load and Qk the live load, 分别)

It will be explained only one case (continuous end support) and the rest will show in the following table.

• $$F=Fd\times L = 15.5 \压裂{千牛}{米} \times 6m = 93.0 千牛$$
• $$M=0.04FL=0.04 \times 93.0 kN \times 6m= -22.32{千牛}{米}$$
• $$d =230 mm$$
• $$K=\frac{中号}{{b}{d^2}{F_{钢底板设计欧洲规范}}}= 分数{22.32\times 10^6 {ñ}{毫米}}{{1000毫米}\次{(230 毫米)^ 2}\次 {25 \压裂{ñ}{mm^2}}}=0.016877$$
• $$l_a = 0.95$$
• $$z=l_a \times d = 0.95\times 230mm = 218.50 mm$$
• $$A_s = \frac{中号}{{0.87}{F_{yk}}{与}}= 分数{22.32\times 10^6 {ñ}{毫米}}{0.87\次 500 {ñ}{mm^2} \次 {218.50毫米} = 234.83 mm^2 }$$
• $$一个_{s,分}=0.0013{b}{d}=0.0013\times 1000mm \times 230 mm =299 mm^2$$
• $$一个_{圣}=max(A_s, 一个_{s,分}) = 最大值(234.83, 299) mm^2 = 299 mm^2$$

M value, 千牛·米 22.32 35.15 41.85 48.00 35.15 35.15
ķ 0.0168 0.0266 0.03164 0.0362 0.0266 0.0266

$$A_s, mm^2$$ 234.83 369.815 440.31 505.011 369.815 369.815
$$一个_{s,分},mm^2$$ 299.00 299.00 299.00 299.00 299.00 299.00
$$一个_{圣} {mm^2}$$ 299.00 369.815 440.31 505.011 369.815 369.815

The next move is to calculate the reinforcement rebar steel using the Plate Design Module in SkyCiv. 请, keep reading the following section!.

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### SkyCiv S3D Plate Design Module Results

This section deals with obtaining the steel reinforcement area but just using the software, 的 板材设计模块. In a concise way, we will only show the results or important information through images.

Before analyzing the model, we must define a plate mesh size. Some references (2) recommend a size for the shell element of 1/6 of the short span or 1/8 of the long span, the shorter of them. Following this value, 我们有 $$\压裂{L2}{6}= 分数{6米}{6} = 1m$$ 要么 $$\压裂{L1}{8}= 分数{14米}{8}=1.75m$$; we take 1m as a maximum recommended size and 0.50m applied mesh size. Once we improved our analytical structural model, we run a linear elastic analysis. When designing slabs, we have to check if the vertical displacement are less than the maximum allowed by code. 欧洲规范 2 stablished a maximum serviciability vertical displacement of $$\压裂{大号}{250}= 分数{6000毫米}{250}=24.0 mm$$. Comparing the maximum vertical displacement against the code-referenced value, the slab’s stiffness is adequate. $$4.822 毫米 < 24.00mm$$.

The maximum moments in the slab’s spans are located for positive in the center and for negative at the exterior and interior supports. Let’s see these moments values in the following images.      ### Results comparison

The last step in this one-way slab design example is compare the steel rebar area obtained by S3D analysis (local axes “2”) and handcalculations.

Moments and steel area Exterior Negative Left Exterior Positive Exterior Negative Right Interior Negative Left Interior Positive Interior Negative Right
$$一个_{圣, HandCalcs} {mm^2}$$ 299.00 369.82 440.31 505.011 369.82 369.82
$$一个_{圣, S3D} {mm^2}$$ 308.41 337.82 462.61 462.61 262.75 308.41
$$\三角洲_{dif}$$ (%) 3.051 8.653 4.820 8.400 28.95 16.610

We can see that the results of the values are very close to each other. This means the calculations are correct!

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## Two-way Slab Design Example

SkyCiv 3D Plate Design Module is a powerful software that can analyze and design any type of building you can imaging. For the second design slab example, we’ve decided to run a flat slab system (数字 11). For the slab example, in summary, the material, elements properties, and loads to consider :

• Slab type classification: Twoway behaviour $$\压裂{L_2}{L_1} \这 2 ; \压裂{7米}{6米}=1.17 \le 2.00$$ 好的!
• Building occupation: Residential use
• Slab thickness $$t_{平板}=0.30m$$
• Reinforced concrete density $$\rho_w = 25 \压裂{千牛}{m^3}$$
• Concrete characteristic compressive strength at 28 天 (C25\30) $$fck = 25 兆帕$$
• Slab Self-Weight $$Dead = \rho_w \times t_{平板} = 25 \压裂{千牛}{m^3} \times 0.30m = 7.5 \压裂 {千牛}{m^2}$$
• Super-imposed dead load $$SD = 3.0 \压裂 {千牛}{m^2}$$
• 活荷载 $$L = 2.0 \压裂 {千牛}{m^2}$$

### Hand calculations according EN-2

The first step is define the total ultimate load:

• Dead load, $$g = (3.0 + 7.5) \压裂{千牛}{m^2} \次 7 m = 73.50 \压裂{千牛}{米}$$
• 活荷载, $$q = (2.0) \压裂{千牛}{m^2} \次 7 m = 14.00 \压裂{千牛}{米}$$
• Ultimate load, $$Fd = 1.35\times g + 1.5\times q = (1.35\次 73.50 + 1.5\次 14.00)\压裂{千牛}{米} =120.225 \frac{千牛}{米}$$

For hand calculation, the structure has to be divided into a series of equivalent frames. We can use the following methods to reach up this goal:

• Moment distribution (Hardy Cross Method) for frame analysis.
• Stiffness method for frame analysis on computer
• A simplified method using the moments coefficients for one-way direction adjusted to the following requirements (We selected this method due the simplicity of the model analyzed):
• The lateral stability is not dependent on the slab-column connections (We don’t analyze the building for lateral loads);
• There are at least three rows of panels of approximately equal span in the direction being considered (We have four and three rows of panels in both main directions);
• The bay size exceeds $$30m^2$$ (Our model area is $$42m^2$$

The thickness selected for the slab example is greater than the maximum minimum value for fire resistance indicated in the table below.

Standard fire resistance Minimum dimensions (毫米)
Slab thickness, hs Axis distance, 一个
REI 60 180 15
REI 90 200 25
REI 120 200 35
REI 240 200 50

• Column strip width: $$6m/4 = 1.50m$$
• Middle strip width: $$7米 – 2\times 1.50m = 4.0m$$

EC2 allows assigning moments in each design strip according to the following table

Column strip Middle strip
Negative moment at edge column 100% but no more than $$0.17{b_e}{d^2}{F_{钢底板设计欧洲规范}}$$ 0
Negative moment at internal column 60-80% 40-20%
Positive moment in span 50-70% 50-30%

We selected the percentages of moments for the column strip being analyzed:

• Negative moment at edge column: 100%.
• Negative moment at internal column: 80%
• Positive moment in span: 70%

Total design strips moments calculation:

End support condition At first interior support At middle of interior spans At interior supports

Outer support Near middle of end span End support End span

0.04FL 0.086FL 0.063FL

0.46F 0.6F 0.5F

• L is the effective span
• F is the total ultimate load in the span (1.35Gk + 1.5Qk; Gk is the dead load and Qk the live load, 分别)

It will be explained only one case (continuos end support) and the rest will show in the following table.

• $$F=Fd\times L = 120.225 \压裂{千牛}{米} \times 6m = 721.35 千牛$$
• $$M=0.04FL=0.04 \times 721.35 kN \times 6m= -173.124 {千牛}{米}$$
• $$d =280 mm$$
• $$K=\frac{中号}{{b}{d^2}{F_{钢底板设计欧洲规范}}}= 分数{173.124\times 10^6 {ñ}{毫米}}{{1500毫米}\次{(280 毫米)^ 2}\次 {25 \压裂{ñ}{mm^2}}}=0.012637$$
• $$l_a = 0.95$$
• $$z=l_a \times d = 0.95\times 280mm = 266.0 mm$$
• $$A_s = \frac{中号}{{0.87}{F_{yk}}{与}}= 分数{173.124\times 10^6 {ñ}{毫米}}{0.87\次 500 {ñ}{mm^2} \次 {266.0毫米} = 214.0523 mm^2 }$$
• $$一个_{s,分}=0.0013{b}{d}=0.0013\times 1500mm \times 280 mm =546 mm^2$$
• $$一个_{圣}=max(A_s, 一个_{s,分}) = 最大值(234.83, 546) mm^2 = 299 mm^2$$

M value, 千牛·米 173.124 191.125 260.064 298.281 191.125 218.429
ķ 0.05897 0.06500 0.0884 0.101 0.06500 0.0743

$$A_s, mm^2$$ 1498.366 1651.761 2247.55 2577.835 1651.761 1887.727
$$一个_{s,分},mm^2$$ 546.00 546.00 546.00 546.00 546.00 546.00
$$一个_{圣} {mm^2}$$ 1498.366 1651.761 2247.55 2577.835 1651.761 1887.727

The next move is to calculate the reinforcement rebar steel using the Plate Design Module in SkyCiv. 请, keep reading the following section!

### SkyCiv S3D Plate Design Module Results  When designing slabs, we have to check if the vertical displacement are less than the maximum allowed by code. Eurocode stablished a maximum serviciability vertical displacement of $$\压裂{大号}{250}= 分数{6000毫米}{250}=24.0 mm$$. The image above gaves to us the vertical displacement. The maximum value is -4.148mm being less than the maximum allowed of -24mm. 因此, the slab’s stiffeness is adequate. Images 15 和 16 consist of the bending moment in each main direction. Taking the moment distribution and values, the software, SkyCiv, can obtain then the total steel reinforcement area. Steel reinforcement areas:    ### Results comparison

The last step in this two-way slab design example is to compare the steel rebar area obtained by S3D analysis and hand calculations.

Rebar steel for X direction and Column Strip

Moments and steel area Exterior Negative Left Exterior Positive Exterior Negative Right Interior Negative Left Interior Positive Interior Negative Right
$$一个_{圣, HandCalcs} {mm^2}$$ 1498.366 1651.761 2247.55 2577.835 1651.761 1887.727
$$一个_{圣, S3D} {mm^2}$$ 3889.375 1040.00 4196.145 4196.145 520.00 3175.00
$$\三角洲_{dif}$$ (%) 61.475 37.04 46.44 38.566 68.52 40.544

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## 参考资料

1. 乙. Mosley, [R. Hulse, J.H. Bungey , “Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocode 2”, Seventh edition, Palgrave MacMillan.
2. Bazan Enrique & Meli Piralla, “Diseño Sísmico de Estructuras”, 1编辑, LIMUSA.
3. 欧洲规范 2: Design of concrete structures.