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In Canada, the NBCC 2010 sets out technical provisions for the design and construction of new buildings. For the purposes of load combinations, Part 4 of the design code provides specifications for limit states design. In general terms, limit states are the conditions that result in the building ceasing to meet its function that it was designed for.

Limit states are categorized as being an ultimate limit state (ULS) or serviceability limit state (SLS). ULS is concerned with safety (e.g. capacity, overtuning, sliding, fracture), whereas SLS is concerned with inhibited intended use and occupancy of the building (e.g. cracking, deformation, vibration).

ULS involves five basic load combination cases.

This article will focus on how SkyCiv’s auto generated load combinations feature meets the load combination equations as specified in NBCC 2010 for ULS.

## 4.1.3.2 Limit States Design: Strength and Stability

Design Code Equation Design Code Comment SkyCiv Equation SkyCiv Comment
Principal Loads: 1.4D Table 4.1.3.2.A - Case 1 1.4G -
Principal Loads: (1.25D or 0.9D) + 1.5L
Table 4.1.3.2.A - Case 2 γuG + 1.5QL
γuG + 1.5QL + 0.5QS
γuG + 1.5QL + 0.4QW
Principal Loads: (1.25D or 0.9D) + 1.5S
Table 4.1.3.2.A - Case 3 γuG + 1.5QS
γuG + 1.5QS + 0.5QL
γuG + 1.5QS + 0.4QW
As above.
Principal Loads: (1.25D or 0.9D) + 1.4W
Table 4.1.3.2.A - Case 4 γuG + 1.4QW
γuG + 1.4QW + 0.5QL
γuG + 1.4QW + 0.5QS
As above.